Each year, 26th January is a day on which every Indian heart fills up with patriotic fervor and immense love for motherland. There are many significant memories as it was this day when the Indian Tricolor was first unfurled in January 1930 at Lahore, by Pt Jawaharlal Nehru and the declaration of an independent Indian National Congress was made. January 26, 1950 was the day when the Indian republic and its Constitution came into force. It was this day in history in 1965 when Hindi was declared as the official language of India.
The Republic of India is a large South Asian country rich in ethnic diversity, with over one billion people speaking hundreds of languages. Politically it is the world’s largest liberal democracy. The Indian economy is the fourth largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, and is the world’s second-fastest growing economy. India is also the second most populated country in the world. India has grown significantly, in terms of both population and strategic importance, in the last twenty years attributed to economic reforms.
Strategically located in Asia, constituting most of the Indian subcontinent, India straddles many busy trade routes. It shares its borders with Pakistan, the People’s Republic of China, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan. Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia are the nearby island nations in the Indian Ocean. Home to some of the most ancient civilizations in the world, India was formally ruled by the British before gaining independence in 1947.
u Origin of India’s name: The official name India is derived from Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the river Indus and is the most internationally recognizable of the country. The Constitution of India and general usage also recognizes Bharat as the other official name of equal status. Bharat comes from the name of an ancient Hindu king and means seeker of knowledge. The third name is Hindustan, meaning land of the Hindus (where Hindu refers to those, who dwell to the right of the Indus/Sindhu river) used from the Mughal times onwards.
India, a sub-continent with 5000 year old History. A civilization united by its diversity, richness of culture, he glory of past, the turbulences and triumphs. The landmarks of each era, the achievements of a change, the legacy of a regime. As we walk through the history, India is an amazing discovery and its history is a unique tale of the past.
With the arrival of the Portuguese, French and English traders, advantage was taken of the fractured, debilitate kingdoms to colonize India. An insurrection amongst the army sepoys ensued in the popular Revolt of 1857 against the powerful British East India Company; this mobilized resistance, though short-lasting, was caused by the widespread resentment against discriminatory policies of the British. After the revolt, the Indian independence movements started demanding complete independence. On August 15th, 1947, India was finally granted independence from British rule and became a secular republic.
u January 26 (Republic Day of India): Republic Day is one of the greatest national celebrations observed throughout the country on January 26 every year. India became Republic on the January 26, 1950. The country became a sovereign democratic republic with a written Consti-tution and an elected Parliament.
At the time of independence, although India was under British rule, there were 565 Princely States, big and small, ruled by powerful sovereigns who were protected by treaties of alliance with the British Crown. Without bringing them together, the fundamental unity of the country was not possible. This unification was accomplished by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, whose statesmanship helped to integrate the country into one nation. In a little less than two years, all the princely states became a part of the Republic of India.
It was on this date in 1927 that the Indian National Congress, then fighting its non-violent war for freedom, voted for complete independence as against “dominion status.” When members of the INC took the pledge to work towards a “sovereign democratic republic” of India.
u Indian Constitution: When India gained freedom from the British on August 15, 1947 there was the need to regulate the meaning of freedom. Therefore, to have a set of rules and regulations that would guide the nation, the Constituent Assembly met on December 9, 1946. The Constituent Assembly was convened and appointed a committee with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as Chairman to draft the Constitution.
Borrowing from the Constitutions of other countries, for example, the Parliamentary form of government from Britain, supremacy of judiciary from the United States, federal system with a strong center from Canada, directive principles of state policy from Ireland, the idea of concurrent powers and co-operative federalism from Australia, the system of procedure established by law from Japan, the Indian Constitution is an amalgam of all these.
The Indian Constitution, the longest in the world, consist 397 articles and 12 schedules, which provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India. The Constitution of India was originally written in English It gives the right to vote to all citizens of 18 years and above, unless they are disqualified. Fundamental rights are guaranteed to the citizens, equality of religion and so on.
– National motto: Satyameva Jayate (In Sanskrit it means Always Truth Alone Triumphs)
-The great Indian flag: This is an ancient Indian symbol associated with the powers and changes of nature.
– Officially, the Orange color stands for courage and sacrifice.
– The White color signifies peace and truth.
– While Green symbolizes faith and chivalry.
It is the duty of every citizen to realize the significance of our flag and pay the honor and respect its commands.
– Official language: Hindi, English.
Having being declared a Demo-cratic Republic, the people starting governing themselves according to the Constitution written by the Constituent assembly. With this, Republic Day became the most important day in the history of India. It is, therefore, natural that the festivities for the day are a lot more elaborate than that for Independence Day.
– The Republic Day parade
The parade showcasing India’s military might and cultural diversity covers an eight-km route, starting from the Rashtrapathi Bhavan through the picturesque Rajpath down to India Gate before winding up at the historic Red Fort in Old Delhi.
The events of the day begin with the Prime Minister laying a wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti (at India Gate).He meets the dignitaries present and unfurls the National Flag. Following the unfurling the National Anthem is played to a 21-gun salute.
After this a brief investiture ceremony takes place during which the President awards India’s top gallantry awards – Param Veer Chakra, Veer Chakra and Maha Veer Chakra. In army these are known as the most prestigious awards for bravery for saving their motherland from the enemy of our country.
– Indian struggle continues till now…
After independence, India has fought four wars with its neighbors. From 1975 to 1977, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a “State of Emergency in India,” thereby freezing civil rights and detaining civilians without trial. Sikh riots in 1984 resulted in religious strife in much of India.
Also the destruction of the Babri Masjid in 1992 resulted in religious strife in much of India. In the desert town of Pokhran, in 1998, the Indian government exploded five nuclear warheads, confirming India’s nuclear status. In 1999, India mobilized its military in Kargil, Kashmir to repel Islamist terrorists who, under the auspices of the Pa
kistani government, were encroaching upon Indian territory.